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                                    Development of pile driving machinery

                                    Category:Industry News  Date:2014-09-09  Views:720   [back]

                                    Piling Machinery world more developed countries, mainly Germany, Italy and Japan, the most advanced equipment and engineering methods are generally first developed these three countries, followed by the United States, Britain, France, the Netherlands, Finland and other countries. Piling Machinery market in the world, Bauer, geotechnical, Casa Grande's sales should top three. 


                                    In the past two years, our transportation, energy, driven by the development of the construction industry, especially in the high-speed railway construction pulling our Piling Machinery industry ushered in a period of rapid development. 


                                    A development of pile driving machinery 


                                    China's construction machinery industry continued to benefit from the country's economic development, stimulating investment in fixed assets, the state implemented the revitalization of favorable factors such as equipment manufacturing strategy, sustained development of the whole industry. According to the China Construction Machinery Industry Association piling machinery branch of statistics, in 2012 sales of 10 billion yuan piling machinery, products, sales of 6,000 units. Although the value of China still can not keep up in Germany, Italy and other countries, but the number is already in the world. 


                                    1.1 Rotary Drilling Rig 


                                    Rotary drilling rig is currently widely used in pile construction abroad, especially in Europe and Japan and other developed countries have long become the main equipment of large diameter bored. 


                                    Domestic rotary drilling rig started in the 1980s, the 1988 Beijing Urban Construction Engineering Machinery Factory has developed a crawler crane attachment type rotary drilling rig, the mid-1990s survey Zhengzhou Machinery Co., Ltd. introduced Attached rotary drilling rig production company from the UK BSP technology, but because this technology is relatively backward, supporting crane coordination difficulties, there is no mass production. 1998 XCMG successfully developed China's first rotary drilling rig in the true sense, but by the time the restrictions on domestic engines, hydraulic parts, drill pipe, fittings and the use of first-class power, there is no mass production. 2003 Before our main rotary drilling rig mainly imported, expensive, only a few have the strength on the basis of construction enterprises purchase. Qinghai-Tibet railway construction on the one hand shows the superiority of rotary drilling rig, it also reminds the domestic manufacturers, foundation construction machinery is also a great space for development. Subsequently a number of companies have developed rotary drilling rig, such as Beijing Sany Heavy Machine, Beijing South Locomotive, Hunan Sunward, Fukuda Heavy Industries, domestic rotary drilling rig successfully developed a significant reduction in the price of rotary drilling rig, breaking the import of rotary drilling rig domination, so that more users can afford rotary drilling rig, and through the purchase of rotary drilling rig also achieved good economic benefits, this complementary relationship has greatly promoted the application of rotary Drilling in China. 


                                    "Eleventh Five-Year", voted heavily in rail, road, electricity, urban public facilities, such as construction, especially the construction of China's high-speed rail development rotary drilling rig has brought unprecedented opportunities "Twelve Five" period in China. High-speed railway has more than 80 percent of the bridge, the bridge mostly in the 1.5m diameter pile below, within the depth of 60m, just for rotary drilling rig construction. 


                                    After several years of development, domestic rotary drilling rig machine's main performance has approached or reached the international advanced level. At present, China has been able to produce drilling rigs 6tm to 40tm sizes from a variety of specifications spin. According to market needs, Shandong Xin country heavy machinery, Zhengzhou Kawashima, Zhejiang has developed a small vibration middle rotary drilling rig in the field of civil engineering construction of pile foundation achieved a very good performance, small rotary drilling positioning accuracy, low cost, maintenance convenient, quick return, ideal for small construction unit. CSR, XCMG, three first-class company developed a large rotary drilling rig used in foundation construction of the Yangtze River, Yellow River large bridge pile, greatly improving construction efficiency, shorten the construction period. Beginning in 2006, domestic rotary drilling rig occupied the domestic market. According Piling Machinery Branch of statistics, in 2006 the sales of rotary drilling rig about 350, about 450 in 2007, about 2008 900, 2009 1200, 2010 1700 units. At present, China is the world's largest producer of rotary drilling rig and use of the country. 


                                    While the broad market prospects for our enterprises to provide a rotary drilling rig market opportunities, but compared with foreign rotary drilling rig decades of development, domestic rotary drilling rig industry started late, the time large number of applications in the market not long, so the question needs to be improved domestic equipment can not be ignored. First, a single species of rotary drilling rig, most manufacturers only twelve kinds of product specifications, should produce a variety of product categories. Secondly, the domestic product is less innovation. Third, the choice of a single imported component parts, should be further diversified, service levels should be gradually strengthened. Quality Fourth, drill pipe, drilling tools and other domestic accessories should be further improved. Fifth, the research supporting the process of rotary drilling rig construction work law is not enough. China's vast territory and complex geological conditions. For different geological types, different construction plan must be clear and the selection of suitable construction equipment. For example, the southeast coast of the softer formations, most of the Southwest, Northwest stratigraphic complexity, new lines are basically like blue rock gravel layer, a hole in how these areas, how to improve construction efficiency, companies need a lot of effort to go to the next study, only done host can not solve the problem. 


                                    1.2 long auger 


                                    In the small-diameter (800mm or less) small depth (30m or less) concrete pile construction field, long auger most advantages, high efficiency, low cost, especially steel cage implant technology successfully developed in recent years, and after much CFG pile Bored to improve the long spiral scope, from China's vast northern region currently extended to Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong and other places. Sections of high-speed railway embankment reinforcement using CFG pile, also contributed to the long auger production in recent years, long auger production steadily. Statistical several major manufacturers, in 2012 the production of hydraulic walker long auger 363 units, production of electric, hydraulic crawler long auger 178 units, more statistics are not comprehensive, based on production long auger power head, 2011 Older auger output should be close to 1,000 units, about 1,500 units in 2012. Now China has formed Fujian Xiamen Xing Heavy Industries, Zhengzhou, New River, Shandong, Ryan, Changsha, long auger several large production bases. 


                                    Manufacturers and yield long auger are many, but the performance difference between the plant is unlikely, the manufacturers of the drill head and drill almost the same. Now used in our long auger construction method is relatively simple, Japan deformed by long auger construction method is very much out of touch our manufacturers and construction, improvement of equipment over the years little progress. In fact there is a great long auger development space. 


                                    1) develop suitable soft soil, gravel layer and other complex formations easily collapse Casing long auger, that the built-in high-speed drill small torque is transferred, the outer casing of low speed high torque reversal. 


                                    2) drill head to a multi-speed development from single speed to suit different pile diameter and depth requirements, improve construction efficiency. 


                                    3) drill a direct impact on the efficiency of construction of long auger, manufacturers and construction units should be combined, developed for different geological conditions of the drill. Foreign manufacturers, such as Japan, and machine materials, only there are dozens of long auger. 


                                    4) products lack the necessary safety devices, such as pile pulling force limiters, anti-roll devices, too, poor stability, accident-prone. 


                                    1.3 reverse circulation drilling rig 


                                    While the rotary drilling rig developed rapidly, but in China's southeast coastal areas and other small cities concrete pile construction is still mainly based reverse circulation drilling rig, reverse circulation drilling rig construction needs Slurry Wall, a large amount of mud, many construction business casual mud discharged without any treatment causing serious environmental pollution. With the improvement of China's economic level, the application of sound equipment and new environmental regulations, the use of this rig will be less and less. Of course, in large diameter (2m above) great depth (60m or more) pile foundation construction, reverse circulation drilling rig still has advantages. In recent years, reverse circulation drilling rig production changes little, every year about 1,000 units. 


                                    Bridge Crossing the River during the construction of pile foundation, the domestic large diameter reverse circulation drilling rig and imported the rig is still a gap compared to such failure, low efficiency into the rock, the drill is easy to damage. China in recent years on the river a lot of maritime engineering, domestic manufacturers should conduct research in this area. 


                                    In some areas of China, such as Wenzhou, Ningbo and other places, particularly soft soil to mud-based, small pile lateral friction, requiring the rock pile must. Our equipment is very backward into the rock, and now rock-socketed pile of small diameter basically the impact of drilling and construction, but the efficiency is very low. DTH commonly used foreign construction rock, high efficiency, but the domestic large diameter DTH is still blank, and the small-diameter DTH poor reliability, requires further study. 


                                    1.4 Hydraulic Static Pile Driver 


                                    Currently pile construction equipment primarily hydraulic static pile driver, the advantage is no vibration, no noise, no pollution, good quality, so our precast concrete piles is very fast in recent years to promote a construction method. At present, from the south to the north, from the coast to inland provinces and municipalities have most applications, especially in soft soil area has become the first choice for civil engineering pile type. The main reasons are: 


                                    1) Pile in the factory processing, quality assurance easy, unlike the scene pile quality accident prone; 


                                    2) Pile increasing scale of production enterprises, a significant reduction in the cost of pile; 


                                    3) hydraulic static pile driver performance significantly improved, product categories and more rich; 


                                    4) Piles production enterprises and pressure machine manufacturing enterprises to promote. 


                                    2012 China's production of hydraulic static pile driver over 600 units. Hydraulic Static Pile Driver's manufacturing enterprises are mainly concentrated in Hunan, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Hunan Sunward market share of over 50%. For hard formations static pile driver construction difficult problem, Sunward and Guangdong Research Institute is being built jointly developed with the rig static pile driver, namely the use of sets in a pile pipe auger drilling side edge pressure piles, reach the intended depth, the rig reversal, reaming drill bit to recover, pull the drill pipe from the pile. The biggest drawback of hydraulic static pile driver is bulky, high transport costs, the transfer of venue of trouble. 


                                    1.5 Hammer 


                                    Including cylinder diesel pile hammer hammer, guide rod diesel hammer, hydraulic hammers, vibratory hammer and so on. 


                                    Drum major manufacturers of diesel hammers have Shanghai Engineering Machinery Factory, Guangdong Liyuan Hydraulic Machinery Co., Ltd.. Guide rod diesel hammer main production plant has JIANGSU up, Juli, Ju-wei, Fushun, 6409 and so on. Among them, the Shanghai Engineering Machinery Factory Mark Bender from Germany imported technology, best quality, maximum quantities, in line with Shanghai Yangshan Port and Hangzhou Bay Bridge, the construction of the East China Sea Bridge wind power plant developed a D160, D220 diesel hammer, D220 diesel hammer is currently the world's largest diesel hammer. Diesel hammer due to noise, fumes and other pollution hazards can not be solved using less and less. 


                                    Vibratory hammer major manufacturers have Zhejiang Construction Machinery Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Ryan Octopus engineering machinery factory, the development of electric vibratory hammer is already very mature, from a few kilowatts to hundreds of kilowatts can be designed and manufactured. The past two years, Zhejiang Zhenzhong's adjustable eccentric moment vibratory hammer has been applied to Shanghai Yangshan Port Multiple pile of sand, and exported to Japan, South Korea and other developed countries. Our hydraulic vibratory hammer has just started, Shanghai has developed a vibration exciting force 100t, 200t hydraulic vibratory hammer. Hydraulic vibratory hammer should be high frequency, FM AM direction. 


                                    The next few years, China will invest trillions of construction of offshore wind power, offshore wind power base before mostly group piles, pile group long construction period and high cost. Europe, Japan and other countries in the construction of offshore wind power has been changed to pile foundation, ie directly to the diameter of 5 ~ 6m, the wall thickness of 100mm or so, tens of meters long with a large steel hydraulic impact hammer or vibratory hammer into sank . Such large-scale hydraulic hammer or vibratory hammer our current or blank, must be imported from abroad, while the price of imported products and is very expensive. Combined engineering needs, the strength of domestic enterprises should begin research. 


                                    1.6 hydraulic grab 


                                    Over the past decade of underground continuous wall technology is developing rapidly, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing and other places have been applied underground continuous wall supporting technology in high-rise buildings and subway stations, hundreds of projects. It is understood that the State Council has approved more than 20 cities to build subways and light rail, invested nearly trillion, China's underground continuous wall construction equipment will have a big development. China is currently used in the construction of underground continuous wall grab equipment and multi-axis hydraulic drilling machine. 


                                    Build a great depth large underground continuous wall thickness usually grab a slot machine, including wire rope grab, hydraulic conductivity plate grab, guide rod grab, grab, such as mixing, due to hydraulic lifting guide plate grab with a grab fast, close fighting force, strong Trench capacity, high construction efficiency, construction depth, big into the wall thickness, a wall of high accuracy (automatic correction device), etc., so use the largest amount. In recent years, rapid development of domestic hydraulic grab, hydraulic grab our sales in 2012 of about 120 manufacturing enterprises in Shanghai Jintai, XCMG, CSR, Trinity, Shanghai works. Currently, Shanghai Jintai hydraulic grab market share of over 50%. 


                                    1.7 multi-axis drilling machine 


                                    SMW method is the use of a dedicated multi-axis drilling machine (usually 3-axis) drilling cutting the soil, while the drill ends injected into the soil cement slurry by mixing well after, and then insert the H-beam or other profiles stir pile the body, forming underground continuous wall, using the wall directly as retaining and sealing structure. The construction method to replace the original envelope method bored and waterproof curtain, with construction speed, good sealing effect, low construction cost, pollution, etc., is a kind of future construction technology promotion. SMW method has been extended for use in Shanghai, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou and other places. 


                                    Construction of SMW of all imported from Japan by early multi-axis drilling machines, such as Japan, and machine materials, III and mechanic, mainly with two mobile phone-based, expensive, shortage of equipment has seriously hampered the promotion of SMW in our country applications. In recent years, domestic SMW method using multi-axis drilling machine has been able to meet the needs of domestic construction, engineering major manufacturing enterprises in Shanghai, Fujian and Xiamen Xing Heavy Industries, Shanghai Jintai, Zhejiang Zhenzhong, 2012 SMW method using multi-axis drilling machine sales of around 130 units. This year Shanghai and Fujian Xiamen Engineering Machinery Factory Hing Heavy Industries, according to project needs to develop a construction depth of more than 50m multi-axis ultra-deep drilling rig, in Zhejiang Province, Zhengzhou High Speed Rail Station excavation construction use is very good. 


                                    1.8 frame 


                                    Pile frame is called habit, according to its purpose and structure principle, in fact, is a dedicated crane and piling oriented devices. Diesel hammer, hydraulic hammers, vibratory hammer, drilling machine, vibrator, deep mixers and other devices in the construction work must be the pile frame supporting the use of pile frame main function is lifting all kinds of pile hammers and other work equipment, pile hopper , steel cage, etc., to pile hammers and other working device orientation and amplitude (hit batter piles), to determine the pile. 


                                    Pile frame according to the structural characteristics of sub roll tube, rail, walker, crawler. China's current extensive use of pile frame for roll tube and walker. Such pile frame the international community has rarely used. Hydraulic walking pile frame is a pile frame with Chinese characteristics, in order to move the pile and walking way swivel, low cost, small and medium-based construction company by the welcome, the major manufacturers: Fujian Xiamen Xing Heavy Industries. Hydraulic Crawler three pile frame is a widely used in foreign countries, the most advanced pile frame, Shanghai Engineering Machinery Factory introduce Japan vehicle DH558, DH658 pile frame production technology, its products reach the international advanced level. 


                                    The late 1990s, some Chinese manufacturers will advantage walking pile frame and crawler pile frame combined with the development of electric crawler pile frame, cost and fully hydraulic crawler pile frame greatly reduced compared walker moving off than convenience. The product is to be welcomed construction unit, is the short-term direction of the track pile frame, but its external power supply security risk. 


                                    2 China needs to study Piling Machinery Products 


                                    2.1 Diaphragm Wall Construction Equipment 


                                    Diaphragm Wall include continuous load-bearing walls, retaining walls and simple seepage cutoff wall. Diaphragm Wall Construction general multi-strata hydraulic grab, but encountered a hard texture layer hydraulic grab construction difficulties, for Bauer, Casa Grande has developed a level of multi-axis machine excavation, China's Three Gorges Project, the South Yellow River Project, Shenzhen Metro, Shanghai Metro introduction of these devices, the use of good results. 


                                    In impervious retaining wall (concrete walls) construction field, before multi-use vertical single or multi-axis drilling rig, use very popular in Japan and China's coastal areas of SMW. But now experiencing hard multiaxial complex formation drilling rig construction difficulties, as there is a certain degree of difficulty triaxial rig construction in the Beijing area. To solve this problem, the German company Bauer has developed a deep BCM series of horizontal multi-axis mixer, Kobelco TRD has developed a cutting machine. Lower part of the Bauer BCM series of horizontal multi-axis mixer has two levels deep set of cutting head, cutting head set with cutting teeth, the upper part of the square is a guide rod, through the chute with three pivot hammers coupled column. The machine wide adaptation, rock, gravel layer can be construction, construction depth of up to 35m, construction of high precision, good waterproof effect into the wall, no pollution. Kobelco TRD unique cutting machine structure, the lateral arrangement of a sprocket chain cutting mechanism on the tracked chassis, equipped with a cutting blade on a chain around. Previous vertical construction in different ways, TRD cutting machine began to drill a predetermined depth, then the full depth of the transverse cutting, cutting while injecting grout to form cement walls. TRD cutting machine construction efficiency is very high, the actual depth of the construction has reached 60m, good quality into the wall, no pollution. 


                                    2.2 removal of equipment underground obstructions 


                                    With the increasing number of urban renewal projects, the old underground foundation of the building how to remove a problem. Our 2010 Shanghai World Expo venues in the original factory building on the Huangpu River, there are similar problems that China now uses vibration plus high pressure flushing approach. Developed urban redevelopment projects in Japan and other particularly large, but also developed a variety of demolition and construction method of underground obstacles equipment. Generally use a full set of rotary drill pipe cutting first obstacle sleeve cut out mainly three kinds of ways: ① grapples with red, cross crawl hammer crusher; ② electrically or hydraulically driven auger crushing short remove; ③ multi-hydraulic crusher claw clip broken out. 


                                    2.3 long auger into the rock equipment 


                                    Now many pile foundation bearing capacity are required in order to ensure to the rock pile, into the rock equipment currently used by our very backward, basically impact drill, inefficient, polluting mud. In South Korea and Japan and other countries, there is a construction method is very effective construction into the rock, that is double the power head long auger and DTH joint construction. The specific method is: the power head drive long spiral drill pipe, drill pipe with the bottom of DTH, DTH driven rotary drill, while the high-pressure air through the drill pipe in the hole to drive up and down the impact of head movement DTH, such side rotary side impact, the rock is broken into small pieces. Since the outer jacket tube powered reverse rotation of the head drive is broken into small pieces of rock in the role of the air under high pressure along the spiral blade is returned to the ground. After reaching a predetermined depth, the drill pipe and pulled DTH, etc. into finished steel cage concrete irrigation pipe and then pulled the jacket. Such construction method construction, high efficiency, good quality into the hole, no mud pollution. 


                                    Three main issues and recommendations 


                                    1) combined construction method, and constantly develop new products. Piling Machinery features are: To meet different pile types, different geological conditions and different engineering requirements, and with the emerging construction methods, but also need to develop new varieties, so each device are piling machinery industry have their own range of adaptation, now in rapid development period, enterprises must seize the opportunity to lay the foundation, a good bit. 


                                    2) strengthen independent innovation and enhance the performance of traditional products, the use of high technology to transform and upgrade traditional industries improve the competitiveness of products is an important measure. 


                                    3) enhance the core competitiveness, innovation to the world. In recent years, the export situation of piling machinery gratifying, but the product from the world's advanced level there is a gap, to create a stable market share and brand, be sure to enterprise products, parts, service mentioned a certain height, which is achieve the international development of the basic guarantee. 


                                    4) to avoid disorderly competition, to promote harmony and win-win. Business development strategy should be developed for the common interests between the companies to combine national conditions and characteristics of the construction, and constantly innovation, carefully study the market, so that each business has its own characteristics and brand, the formation of competitive differentiation pattern , out of a development path suited to their sound.


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